June 6, 2008

effect of pollution on human being

Major Man-Made Sources
Human Health & Welfare Effects
Control Methods
Particulate MatterAirborne solid particle and liquid particles
Grouped into 2 catergories:
Power plants, steel mills, chemical plants, unpaved roads and parking lots, wood-burning stoves and fireplaces, automobiles and others.
Can get deep into your lungs or even enter your blood stream, and cause serious health problems; Increased respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing, or difficulty breathing; aggravated asthma; development of chronic bronchitis; irregular heartbeat; nonfatal heart attacks; and premature death in people with heart or lung disease. Impairs visibility (haze).
Pollution control equipment and reduction of fuel combustion
"Coarse Particles" from 2.5 to 10 microns in diameter
"Fine Particles" smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter
Ozone(Smog) A colorless or bluish gas
Formed by a chemical reaction between volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrous oxides (NOx) in the presence of sunlight. Motor vehicle exhaust industrial emissions, gasoline storage and transport, solvents, paints and landfills.
Irritates and causes inflammation of the mucous membranes and lung airways; causes wheezing, coughing and pain when inhaling deeply; decreases lung capacity; aggravates lung and heart problems.
Damages plants; reduces crop yield.
Damages rubber, some textiles and dyes.
Pollution control equipment; reducing NOx emissions from power plants and industrial combustion sources; introducing low-emission cars and trucks; using "cleaner" gasoline; use of low-VOC solvents.
Sulfur DioxideA colorless, nonflammable gas

Formed when fuel containing sulfur, such as coal and oil, is burned; when gasoline is extracted from oil; or when metal is extracted from ore. Examples are petroleum refineries, cement manufacturing, metal processing facilities, locomotives, large ships, and fuel combustion in diesel engines.
Respiratory irritant. Aggravates lung and heart problems. In the presence of moisture and oxygen, sulfur dioxide converts to sulfuric acid which can damage marble, iron and steel; damage crops and natural vegetation. Impairs visibility. Precursor to acid rain.
Use of low-sulfur fuels, energy conservation (reduces power plant emissions), and pollution control equipment. Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel is being phased in during 2006 and will be mandatory in 2007.
Carbon MonoxideAn odorless, colorless gas.

Formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely;' a component of motor vehicle exhaust.
Reduces the ability of blood to deliver oxygen to vital tissues, effecting the cardiovascular and nervous system. Impairs vision, causes dizziness, and can lead to unconsciousness or death.
Transportation planning, vehicle emission testing and reduction, efficient combustion techniques, and energy conservation.
Nitrogen DioxideA reddish-brown gas

Fuel combustion in motor vehicles and industrial sources. Motor vehicles; electric utilities, and other sources that burn fuel.
Respiratory irritant; aggravates lung and heart problems. Precursor to ozone and acid rain. Contributes to global warming, and nutrient overloading which deteriorates water quality. Causes brown discoloration of the atmosphere.
Exhaust gas recirculation in motor vehicles; reduction of combustion temperatures in industrial sources; energy conservation pollution control equipment
The contamination of the atmosphere by human activities has been occurring for almost 500 years. Considering that the atmospheric pollutants reach the individual mostly by breathing, it is expected that their main effects be in the respiratory tract.
Exposure to environment pollutants is recognised as an important factor for children hospital admissions,1 school absence,2 intra-uterine mortality,3 and even congenital malformation.4 Sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and particulate material with aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 mm (PM10) are among the most hazardous pollutants.
Sulphur dioxide is known as a respiratory tract irritant which causes decrease of lung function5 and even pulmonary necrosis in animals.6 It was recently shown that increase of SO2 levels yielded increase of pneumonia and flu cases in the elderly.7 The main sources for this pollutant are coal and petroleum derivatives. Sulphur dioxide is easily absorbed in the upper respiratory tracts and it deposits in the lower portion of these tracts and in the pulmonary parenchyma.
Ground level ozone results from photochemical reactions between nitrogen oxides, provided by oxidation of the nitrogen present in the air and/or in the fuel, and solar radiation.8 Ozone can cause decrease of the lung function, lung inflammation and it can reach lung alveoli.5 The pollutant is also a very strong oxidiser and, as such, it can participate in inner and outer cellular reactions, involving enzymes which are important for metabolism.
Particulate material originates mainly from the burning of fossil fuels It can have a half life ranging from days to years, and it is associated with increases of respiratory symptoms and diseases in children, and worsening of asthma cases.9,10 More recently, this pollutant has been shown to be associated with low birth weight11 and infant mortality12 The particulate material can also reach the alveolli thinnest respiratory tracts.
One of the effects of the atmospheric pollution on childhood health is the increase of hospital admissions by respiratory diseases.13 There is correlation between the lowest temperatures and hospital admissions.
The objective of this work is to estimate the correlation between the level of atmospheric pollutants and the number of children admissions by respiratory diseases in a university hospital.

This is an ecological study of time series, where all children hospital admissions were counted for children up to seven years of age. The period was January 1 to December 31, 2001. The total number of admissions for this age group was also identified. The data were obtained at the hospital Medical Archive Service (SAME).
The unit was the University Hospital of Taubaté, Brazil. The city of Taubaté is located at 120 km East of São Paulo and its population is on the order of 250,000 inhabitants. Taubaté locates between Mantiqueira and Sea Mountain; the wet climate included November to March months and the temperatures can be so high as 35º C. In winter the minimal temperatures are near to 10º C. Its geographic situation is 24º South latitude and 44º West longitude.
The respiratory diseases considered in this work are those corresponding - in the International Classification of Diseases,14 10th revision, to the group diagnostics J12 to J22, J45 and J46. The number of hospital admission by respiratory diseases was the dependent variable.
Daily data of humidity, in percents, and temperature, in Celsius degrees, and of the pollutants SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations were obtained at the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB) section of Taubaté were the independent variables.
For all the three pollutants, data collection started during the first hour of the day and encompassed 24 hours. Concentrations were determined in mg/m3. Concentrations of PM10, SO2 and O3 were measured using the monitor beta, coulometry, and chemiluminescence techniques, respectively.
There were built three days mobile averages to pollutants to estimate its effect on hospital admission. There were built tables with one day lag and two days lag to number of hospital admission and estimated the correlation between these values and the independent variables.
The correlation between the variables was estimated by the Pearson correlation coefficient.
The relative risks for hospital admission by respiratory disease were estimated by comparing the second, third and fourth quartiles of the pollutant agents with the values of the first quartile. Confidence intervals of 95% were constructed. The Epi-info 6.04 program was used for data compilation and analysis. The adopted statistical significance in this study was alpha = 5%.

There were 526 children hospital admissions in 2001. One hundred and fifty eight hospital admission (30%) were due to respiratory diseases. The latter corresponds to a daily average of 0.58 admission (dp = 0.79), varying between 0 and 4 admissions per day.

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